Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. In Multiple myeloma a serum or urine monoclonal component is produced by bone marrow plasma cells. Great progresses have been made in the latest 10 years and survivals are nearly doubled. This improvement has been reached with novel efficacious drugs and with implemented diagnostic tools. The diagnosis is made by serum and urine biochemicals exams, by radiological examination and by marrow analysis. Novel diagnostic parameters have been introduced and novel prognosticators are present. Cytogenetics , flow cytometry, PET-CT are only few of them. Laboratory tools are present that can diagnose, detect and monitor disease during follow up. In this presentation an overview of multiple myeloma diagnostic and therapeutic tools will be given according to recent IMWG recommendations and with practical clinical cases discussed.