Diabetes is classified under 2 main types:

  • Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is characterized by insufficient insulin production.
  • Type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent or adult diabetes) results from the body’s inadequate use of insulin. It is often the result of excess weight and physical inactivity.


But also

  • Gestational diabetes (GDM) is the high blood sugar that is detected during pregnancy.

Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of serious health problems. Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to irreversible complications affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and teeth. In addition, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections.

Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower limb amputation.

Approximately 463 million adults (between 20-79 years of age) are living with diabetes; by 2045 this will rise to 700 million(1).

million adults worldwide have diabetes.
adults having diabetes are undiagnosed.


Diabetes is identified by testing the blood sugar. This is achieved by measuring the concentration of the glucose by different analytical tests: mainly FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) and OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance test) or by measuring a specific fraction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from patient whole blood sampling.

Hb A1c, is defined as the hemoglobin A which is irreversibly glycated at one or both N-terminal valines of the beta chain. It is a widely used biomarker in diabetes management, has a greater pre-analytical stability compared to glucose and does not require the patient to fast prior to testing. It also provides information on the monitoring of long-term glycemic control and an assessment of the risk of developing complications.

Furthermore Hb A1c is a standardised parameter by the IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry) in harmony with the NGSP network.

Sebia’s Expertise

Capillary electrophoresis is the next generation separation method that provides clear-cut and precise separation of the Hb A1c fraction with no altered results in the presence of the most frequent interferences (labile A1c, carbamylated Hb, Hb F, heterozygous S, C, D and E). The high-resolution power of the method allows the incidental detection of homozygous hemoglobin variants (sickle cell disease…) preventing HbA1c reporting in the absence of Hb A.